The Phillips ROI Methodology utilizes five degrees of evaluation, which are crucial in identifying the return on investment. At Level 1 – Reaction and Planned Action stakeholder and attendee satisfaction from the meeting can be assessed. Virtually all organizations evaluate at Level 1, with a generic usually, end-of-meeting questionnaire. While this degree of evaluation is important as a “stakeholder” satisfaction measure, a favorable reaction does not ensure that attendees have acquired new skills, knowledge, behavior or views from the meeting.
At Level 2 – Learning, measurements focus on what participants discovered during the conference using testing, skill procedures, role-plays, simulations, group evaluations, and other evaluation tools. A learning check is effective to ensure that attendees have absorbed the meeting material or text messages and know how to use or apply it properly. It is also important at this level look for the amount and quality of new professional connections obtained and whether existing professional contacts were strengthened due to the meeting.
However, an optimistic measure at this level is no warranty that that which was learned or whether the professional contacts obtained will be used on the job. At Level 3 – Job Applications a variety of follow-up methods may be used to determine if attendees applied on the job what they discovered or acquired at the meeting.
At Level 4 – Business Results, the measurement targets the actual business results achieved by meeting participants as they effectively apply the meeting material or communications. Typical Level 4 measures include result, sales, quality, costs, time, and customer satisfaction. However the meeting might produce a measurable business impact, there continues to be a problem that the meeting may cost too much. At Level 5 – Return on Investment, this ultimate degree of measurement compares the monetary advantages from the meeting with the fully-loaded meeting costs as expressed in the ROI formula. All levels of evaluation must be conducted to be able to look for the ROI of the event or meeting.
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Investing in short-term bonds gives you frequent access to your money, so that you can re-invest. Interest-rate risk. As mentioned above, when inflation goes up, so do interest rates. If you buy a bond today that pays 2% interest, as the issuer is economically viable long, you will obtain your 2% and, in the end, your primary shall be coming back.
However, if inflation increases or another thing happens so that similar bonds are paying 3%, if you need to sell your relationship, you’ll get less than face value for it. Why must I purchase your 2% bond when I can buy a 3% bond? You must make it worth my while by decreasing the price. Just as though, if I have a 3% connection and interest rates drop, I could sell it for more than face value. The shorter the term of the bond, the low the interest rate risk, and the lower the interest, all other things being equal.